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Visualising Six Sigma

Motorala's six sigma represent an error rate of merely 0.00034 percent(3.4 ppm) , and one might ask , "How much is enough?" Recall this value is determined by the area under the normal beyond 4.5σ above the mean (6.0=4.5+1.5).This performance lavel is so good that it is difficult to visualize. Ponder the following examples that are equivalent to 3.4 ppm:
  • Measuring the cercumference of the earth to within 300 feet and
  • Consuming 1 extra automobile gasoline tank till-up(15 gallons) from a large (100,000 barrels per day) petroleam refinery.
On the surface, the six sigma goal would seem to be absurd. It extends beyond practical limits and the expectations of normal variation. Digging deeper how ever, to factors emerge to make six-sigma a sound goal: the concepts of joint events and shifting of the mean.

Mean centered Mean shifted
SigmaCpExpected defects CpkExpected defects
10.333,174 per 10,000-6,977 per 10,000
20.67455 per 10,000-3,087 per 10,000
31.0027 per 10,0000.50668 per 10,000
41.3363.5 per million0.8562 per 10,000
51.67570 per billion1.17233 per million
62.002 per billion1.503.4 per million
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