Become the best in class using
six sigma plus. Your total quality
efforts can be focused to outpace the rest.
10 STEPS FOR OVERCOMING RESISTANCE 1) Obtain
information on attitudes and morale. 2) Understand how behavior affects
the company and how resistance manifests. 3) Evaluate these attitudes and
behaviors. 4) Establish an open-door policy and an open-mind concept. 5)
Become an effective listener. 6) Use time effectively to avoid the common
pitfall of not enough time to do, listen, collect data, learn. 7) Provide
tools - education/training in latest techniques, technologies, etc. 8)
Measure results of team activities to demonstrate interest. 9) Reward
people/teams for performance stages. 10 Don't procrastinate; make
3 Mu Three Japanese words that mean waste (muda),
strain (muri), and discrepancy (mura).
5S Five Japanese words
that describe workplace and individual cleanliness activities. Straighten
up your workplace or desk. (Seiri) Sort out your equipment. (Seiton) Sweep
and clean your workplace. (Seiso) Spotlessly maintain your appearance and
character. (Seiketsu) Self-discipline to follow rules, procedures, and
5-Whys Keep asking why at each
successive level of detail.
AA - Abbreviated
AALA American Association for Laboratory
ABSCISSA - The horizontal axis of a
Acceptable Quality Level (AQL) AQL is limit of a
satisfactory process average at a particular quality level when a
continuing series of lots is considered.
ALPHA RISK - The region of values for which the null hypothesis is
Acceptance Sampling Inspection of a sample from
a lot to decide whether to accept or not accept that lot. There are two
types - attributes sampling and variables sampling.
Registrars are qualified organizations certified by a national
body to perform audits to the QS9000 standard and to register the audited
facility as meeting these requirements for a given
Accuracy The closeness of agreement between an
observed value and an accepted reference value. Also see
Activity A process, function or task that
occurs over time and has recognizable results. Activities combine to form
Activity Based Costing (ABC) An
accounting technique that allows an enterprise to determine the actual
costs associated with each product and service produced by that enterprise
without regard to the organizational structure of the enterprise.
Activity-based costing (ABC) A system for making
business decisions based on cost information of fundamental business
activities as tasks related to product design, development, quality,
manufacturing, distribution, customer acquisition, service and support.
ABC is sometimes considered a form of business process re-engineering as
it insists on surfacing a manageable number of cost drivers that can be
used to trace variable business costs to customer, products and
Activity Model A graphic representation of a
business process that exhibits the activities and their interdependencies
that make up the business process to any desired level of detail. An
activity model reveals the interactions between activities in terms of
inputs and outputs while showing the controls placed on each activity and
the types of resources assigned to each
Adequacy Used in QS-9000. Indicates the
intent of the standard has been bet, given the scope of the supplier's
Affinity Diagram A tool used to organize ideas,
usually generated through brainstorming, into groups of related thoughts.
The emphasis is on a pre-rational, gut-fell sort of grouping, often done
by the members of the group with little or no talking. Also known as the
KJ method after its creator, Kawakita Jiro.
Affinity Diagram A
way to organize facts, opinions, ideas and issues into natural groupings
as an aid to diagnosis on a complex problem. A large number of ideas are
generated and then organized into groupings to reveal major
Affinity Diagram is a creative process, used with
or by a group, to gather and organize ideas, opinions, issues,
Affinity Diagram method (KJ method) clarifies important but
unresolved problems by collecting verbal data from disordered and confused
situations and analyzing that data by mutual affinity. It is typically
represented graphically as nested squared ellipses (concepts) which have
smaller and smaller subgroupings of concepts.
AIAG Automotive Industry Action
Algorithm (1) A finite set of well-defined rules for
the solution of a problem in a finite number of steps. (2) Any sequence of
operations for performing a specific task.
Algorithm analysis A
software task to ensure that the algorithms selected are correct,
appropriate, and stable, and meet all accuracy, timing, and sizing
Alignment-a scale which measures how close an
employee's personal needs are to the organization's
ALPHA RISK - The probability of accepting the
alternate hypothesis when, in reality, the null hypothesis is
ALTERNATE HYPOTHESIS - A tentative explanation which
indicates that an event does not follow a chance distribution; a contrast
to the null hypothesis.
Americans with Disabilities Act
(ADA) A US program to assure businesses and their goods and services
are accessible to people with disabilities. The law defines accessibility
on the basis of function, and thus is a good fit with QFD to prioritize
functions according to customer needs. Thus, with a clear definition of
customer driven functions, we can craft job descriptions and tasks to take
advantage of the abilities of people with disabilities.
Means (ANOM) Developed by Ellis R. Ott in 1967 (later enhanced by
Edward Schilling), ANOM is a statistical procedure for troubleshooting
industrial processes and analyzing the results of experimental designs
with factors at fixed levels. It provides a graphical display of data.
Ellis R. Ott developed the procedure in 1967 because he observed that
non-statisticians had difficulty understanding analysis of
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) a basic statistical
technique for analyzing experimental data. It subdivides the total
variation of a data set into meaningful component parts associated with
specific sources of variation in order to test a hypothesis on the
parameters of the model or to estimate variance
Analysis(1) To separate into elemental parts
or basic principles so as to determine the nature of the whole (2) A
course of reasoning showing that a certain result is a consequence of
assumed premises. (3) (ANSI) The methodical investigation of a problem,
and the separation of the problem into smaller related units for further
ANALYTIC NETWORK PROCESS The Analytic Network
Process (ANP), though based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process, is a system
for the analysis, synthesis, and justification of complex decisions with
the capability to model non-linear relations between the elements. ANP
allows the decision maker(s) to leap beyond the traditional hierarchy to
the interdependent environment of network modeling. The ANP is designed
for problems characterized by the added complexity of interdependencies
such as feedback and dependencies among problem elements. Using a network
approach makes it possible to represent and analyze interactions,
incorporate non-linear relations between the elements, and synthesize
mutual effects by a single logical procedure.
Process (AHP) Developed by Thomas Saaty, AHP provides a proven,
effective means to deal with complex decision making and can assist with
identifying and weighting selection criteria, analyzing the data collected
for the criteria and expediting the decision-making
Anomaly. Anything observed in the documentation or
operation of software that deviates from expectations based on previously
verified software products or reference documents. See: bug, defect,
error, exception, fault.
Appearance Item Is a product that is
visible once the vehicle is completed. Certain customers will identify
appearance items on the engineering drawings. In these cases, special
approval for appearance (color, grain, texture, etc.) is required prior to
production part submissions.
Application software Software
designed to fill specific needs of a user; for example, software for
navigation, payroll, or process control. Contrast with support software;
Apportionment Synonymous with the term
Reliability Apportionment, which is the assignment of reliability goals
from system to subsystem in such a way that the whole system will have the
Approved Drawing Is an engineering
drawing signed by the engineer and released through the customer's
Approved Material Approved Materials are materials
governed either by industry standard specifications (e.g., SAE, ASTM, DIN,
ISO) or by customer specifications.
Productivity & Quality Council
APQP Advanced Product
AQP Advanced Quality
Architecture The organizational structure of a system
Arrow Diagram is another term for a PERT or
CPM chart. It is a graphic description of the sequential steps that must
be completed before a project can be completed.
Diagram method establishes the most suitable daily plan and monitors
its progress efficiently. ... The arrow diagram method utilized by PERT or
CPM, is a network of lines that connect all the elements related to plan
execution. It is typically represented graphically by either a horizontal
or vertical tree structure connecting the elements.
A model that represents the current stage of the organization modeled,
without any specific improvements included.
logical expression specifying a program state that must exist or a set of
conditions that program variables must satisfy at a particular point
during program execution.
Assertion checking Checking of
user-embedded statements that assert relationships between elements of a
program. An assertion is a logical expression that specifies a condition
or relation among program variables. Tools that test the validity of
assertions as the program is executing or tools that perform formal
verification of assertions have this feature.
Assessment An evaluation process including a
document review, an on-site audit and an analysis and report. Customers
may also include a self-assessment, internal audit results and other
materials in the assessment.
ASSIGNABLE CAUSE - A source of
variation which is non-random; a change in the source ("VITAL FEW"
variables) will produce a significant change of some magnitude in the
response (dependent variable), e.g., a correlation exists; the change may
be due to an intermittent in-phase effect or a constant cause system which
may or may not be highly predictable; an assignable cause is often
signaled by an excessive number of data points outside a control limit
and/or a non-random pattern within the control limits; an unnatural source
of variation; most often economical to eliminate.
Cause The cause(s) of variation in a process which have a source that is
identified, and can be eventually eliminated. [Same as Special
ASSIGNABLE VARIATIONS - Variations in data which
can be attributed to specific causes.
Society for Testing and Materials
ATTRIBUTE - A
characteristic that may take on only one value, e.g. 0 or
Attribute A property or characteristic that is common
to some or all of the instances of an entity. An attribute represents the
use of a domain in the context of an entity.
Data - Numerical information at the nominal level; subdivision is not
conceptually meaningful; data which represents the frequency of occurrence
within some discrete category, e.g., 42 solder
Attributes data are qualitative data that can be
counted for recording and analysis. Examples include the presence or
absence of a required label, the installation of all required fasteners.
Attributes data are not acceptable for production part submissions unless
variables data cannot be obtained. The control charts based on attribute
data are percent chart, number of affected units chart, count chart,
count-per-unit chart, quality score chart, and demerit
Attribute(s) Data 1. Product, process , or
component data that is qualitative, rather than quantitative in nature. 2.
Product, process , or component data that is measured strictly by either
conforming or not.
Attributes data Data that is counted in
discrete units such as dollars, hours, items, and yes/no options. The
alternative to attributes data is variables data, which is data that is
measured on a continuous and infinite scale such as temperature or
distance. Charts that use attribute data include bar charts, pie charts,
Pareto charts and some control charts.
AUDIT - A periodic
inspection to ensure that a process is conforming to its
Audit (Quality) An independent review conducted
to compare some aspect of quality performance with a standard for that
performance. (Juran, Quality Control Handbook)
(ISO) Data in the form of a logical path linking a sequence of events,
used to trace the transactions that have affected the contents of a
record. (2) A chronological record of system activities that is sufficient
to enable the reconstruction, reviews, and examination of the sequence of
environments and activities surrounding or leading to each event in the
path of a transaction from its inception to output of final
audit(1)An independent examination of a work product or set of
work products to assess compliance with specifications, standards,
contractual agreements, or other criteria. (2) (ANSI) To conduct an
independent review and examination of system records and activities in
order to test the adequacy and effectiveness of data security and data
integrity procedures, to ensure compliance with established policy and
operational procedures, and to recommend any necessary
Authority- ability of a team to budget, to have
access to a petty cash fund.
Availability A product or
service's ability to perform its intended function at a given time and
under appropriate conditions. It can be expressed by the ratio operative
time/total time where operative time is the time that it is functioning or
ready to function.
Average chart (X-bar chart) A control chart
in which the average of the subgroup, represented by the X-bar, is to
determine the stability or lack thereof in the process. Average charts are
usually paired with range charts or sample standard deviation charts for
Average Outgoing Quality (AOQ) The expected
average quality level of outgoing product for a given value of incoming
Average Outgoing Quality Limit (AOQL) The
maximum average outgoing quality over all possible levels of incoming
quality for a given acceptance sampling plan and disposal